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CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 New Updated

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 (New)


    No. of Periods Marks
Unit–I Electrostatics  









  Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and


Unit-II Current Electricity  


  Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit-III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism  








  Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
  Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating





  Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
  Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves  







  Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
Unit–VI Optics  



  Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  Chapter–10: ave Optics
Unit–VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter  







  Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and


Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei  



  Chapter–12: Atoms
  Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IX Electronic Devices  







  Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics:

Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Total 150 70

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 (New)

Unit I: Electrostatics, 24 Periods

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric  flux,  statement of Gauss’s theorem and its  applications to find fields due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of  charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy  of  a  system of  two  point  charges  and  of  electric  dipole  in  an electrostatic field.

Conductors  and  insulators,   free  charges  and  bound    charges  inside   a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination  of capacitors  in  series  and in  parallel,  capacitance  of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity  (18 Periods)

Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility   and  their   relation   with   electric   current;  Ohm’s   law,   electrical resistance, V-I characteristics  (linear and nonlinear),  electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of  cells  in  series  and in  parallel,  Kirchhoff’s  laws  and simple  applications, wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer  – principle  and its  applications  to measure potential  difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III:    Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (22 Periods)

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on  a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.

Force  on  a current-carrying  conductor  in  a uniform  magnetic  field,  force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced   by   a  current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole  moment  of  a revolving  electron,  magnetic  field  intensity  due  to  a magnetic  dipole  (bar magnet) along  its  axis  and perpendicular  to  its  axis, torque on  a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (20 Periods)

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (04 Periods)

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

Electromagnetic    spectrum   (radio    waves,   microwaves,    infrared,    visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics (27 Periods)

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical  surfaces,  lenses,  thin  lens  formula,  lensmaker’s  formula, magnification,  power  of  a  lens,  combination  of  thin  lenses  in  contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane  surface  using  wave fronts.  Proof  of laws  of reflection and  refraction  using  Huygens  principle.  Interference,  Young’s  double  slit experiment and expression for fringe width,   coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving   power  of  microscope   and  astronomical   telescope,   polarisation, plane   polarised   light,   Brewster’s  law,   uses  of  plane   polarised   light   and Polaroids.

Unit VII:  Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (08 Periods)

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII:  Atoms and Nuclei (15 Periods)

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays  and their  properties;  radioactive  decay law,  half  life  and mean life.

Mass-energy  relation,   mass  defect;   binding   energy  per  nucleon  and  its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX:   Electronic Devices (12 Periods)

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)

Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;

Special  purpose p-n  junction  diodes:  LED,  photodiode,  solar  cell  and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Practical 2021-22: (Total Periods 60)

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:

Record of at least 12 Experiments [with 6 from each section], to be performed by the students.

Record of at least  6  Activities  [with  3  each from  section  A and section  B], to  be performed by the students.

The Report of the project to be carried out by the students.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 (New)

Evaluation Scheme

Time Allowed: Three hours, Max. Marks: 30

Two experiments one from each section 7+7 Marks
Practical record [experiments and activities] 5 Marks
One activity from any section 3 Marks
Investigatory Project 3 Marks
Viva on experiments, activities and project 5 Marks
Total 30 marks

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 (New)


Section – A

  1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
  2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.
  3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.


To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

  1. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.
  2. To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using a potentiometer.
  3. To determine resistance  of a galvanometer  by half-deflection method and to find  its figure of merit.
  4. To convert the given  galvanometer  (of known  resistance  and figure  of merit)  into  a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.


To convert the given galvanometer (of known  resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

  1. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.


  1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
  2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using a multimeter.
  3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
  4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
  5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
  6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter.  Mark the components  that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.



  1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
  2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
  3. To  find  the focal  length  of  a convex lens  by  plotting  graphs between u  and v  or between 1/u and 1/v.
  4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
  5. To  determine  angle  of  minimum  deviation  for  a given  prism  by  plotting  a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
  6. To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
  7. To find the refractive index of a liquid by using a convex lens and plane mirror.
  8. To  draw the  I-V characteristic  curve for  a p-n  junction  diode  in  forward  bias  and reverse bias.
  9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breaks down voltage.


  1. To identify  a diode,  an LED, a resistor  and a capacitor  from a mixed  collection  of such items.
  2. Use of a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED  and check whether a given  electronic  component (e.g., diode)  is  in  working order.
  3. To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
  4. To observe refraction and lateral  deviation of a beam of light  incident  obliquely on a glass slab.
  5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
  6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
  7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on  a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
  8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

Suggested Investigatory Projects

  1. To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.
  2. To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in

(a) the power of the incandescent  lamp,  used to ‘illuminate’  the LDR (keeping  all  the lamps at a fixed distance).

(b) the distance of an incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR.

  1. To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equi  convex lens  (made from  a glass  of a known  refractive  index)  and an adjustable object needle.
  2. To design an appropriate logic gate combination for a given truth table.
  3. To investigate  the relation  between the ratio  of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.
  4. To  investigate  the dependence of the angle  of deviation  on  the angle  of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
  5. To estimate  the charge induced  on  each one of the two identical  styrofoam  (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law.
  6. To study the factor on  which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
  7. To study the earth’s magnetic field using a tangent galvanometer.

Prescribed Books:

– Physics, Class XII, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.

– Laboratory Manual of Physics for class XII Published by NCERT.

Download CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021-22 (PDF)